FOUCAULT&MAGRITTE

 

paul michel foucault


poitiers 15 ottobre 1926   -   paris 25 giugno 1984

 

People know what they do

frequently they know why they do what they do

but what they don't know is what what they do does
...

SELF-ATTACHMENT IS THE FIRST SIGN OF MADNESS
BUT IT IS BECAUSE MAN IS ATTACHED TO HIMSELF THAT HE ACCEPTS ERROR AS TRUTH
LIES AS REALITY, VIOLENCE AND UGLINESS AS BEAUTY AND JUSTICE

...

The gesture that divides madness is the constitutive one

not the science that grows up in the calm that returns after the division has been made

madness and civilization: a history of insanity in the age of reason - 1961

 

 

L’uomo di cui ci parlano e che siamo invitati a liberare è già in se stesso l’effetto di un assoggettamento ben più profondo di lui. Un’anima lo abita e lo conduce all’esistenza, che è essa stessa un elemento della signoria che il potere esercita sul corpo. L’anima, effetto e strumento di una anatomia politica; l’anima, prigione del corpo.

.

Le pouvoir disciplinaire  en effet est un pouvoir qui, au lieu de soutirer et de prélever, a pour fonction majeure de 'dresser' ; ou sans doute, de dresser pour mieux prélever et soutirer davantage.
sorvegliare e punire 1975

.

Ne me demandez pas qui je suis et ne me dites pas de rester le même : c'est une morale d'état civil ; elle régit nos papiers. Qu'elle nous laisse libre quand il s'agit d'écrire.
l'archéologie du savoir 1969

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Je peux bien aller au bout du monde, je peux bien me tapir, le matin, sous mes couvertures, me faire aussi petit que je pourrais, je peux bien me laisser fondre au soleil sur la plage, il sera toujours là où je suis.     Il est ici irréparablement, jamais ailleurs. Mon corps, c'est le contraire d'une utopie, ce qui n'est jamais sous un autre ciel, il est le lieu absolu, le petit fragment d'espace avec lequel, au sens strict, je fais corps.
Le Corps Utopique  - 1966 - in Le Corpus Utopique - Les Hétérotopies - 2009

.
Parmi les millions de traces laissées par quelqu'un après sa mort, comment définir une oeuvre ?
qu’est-ce qu’un auteur ?  1969

I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am  

The main interest in life and work is to become someone else

that you were not in the beginning

I don't feel that it is necessary to know exactly what I am. The main interest in life and work is to become someone else that you were not in the beginning. If you knew when you began a book what you would say at the end, do you think that you would have the courage to write it? What is true for writing and for a love relationship is true also for life. The game is worthwhile insofar as we don't know what will be the end. My field is the history of thought. Man is a thinking being.
truth - power - self -  Interview  oct 25, 1982

 




Sviluppate la vostra legittima stranezza
La parola francese, étrangeté, ha però un duplice significato: è infatti stranezza ma anche estraneità, e riguarda sia coloro che sono strani, sia coloro che sono estranei e stranieri: due condizioni che anche nella lingua inglese vengono rappresentate da due sostantivi distinti  - strangeness / foreignness.

...
Le persone che amo, le utilizzo

Il solo segno di riconoscimento che si possa testimoniare a un pensiero … è precisamente di utilizzarlo, di deformarlo, di farlo stridere, gridare. Allora, dicano pure i commentatori se si è o non si è fedeli, ciò non ha alcun interesse .
1975 - la storia della follia nell’età classica
paolo colavero - psicopatologiafenomenologica.it

...

Enfermé dans le navire, d’où on n’échappe pas

le fou est confié à la rivière aux mille bras, à la mer aux mille chemins, à cette grande incertitude extérieure à tout. Il est prisonnier au milieu de la plus libre, de la plus ouverte des routes : solidement enchaîné à l’infini carrefour ...

histoire de la folie à l'âge classique - folie et déraison 1961

...

Je voudrais qu’un livre

au moins du côté de celui qui l’a écrit, ne soit rien d’autre que les phrases dont il est fait ; qu’il ne se dédouble pas dans ce premier simulacre de lui-même qu’est une préface, et qui prétend donner sa loi à tous ceux qui pourront à l’avenir être formés à partir de lui. Je voudrais que cet objet-événement, presque imperceptible parmi tant d’autres, se recopie, se fragmente, se répète, se simule, se dédouble, disparaisse finalement sans que celui à qui il est arrivé de le produire, puisse jamais revendiquer le droit d’en être le maître, d’imposer ce qu’il voulait dire, ni de dire ce qu’il devait être.
fb/mf -  seconde préface pour la réédition d'histoire de la folie à l'âge classique - 1972

 

 de l'homme à l'homme vrai, le chemin passe par l'homme fou
dall'uomo al vero uomo, la strada passa per l'uomo pazzo
the path from man to true man goes by way of madman

histoire de la folie à l'âge classique 1972

 

 

 

 

IT CERTAINLY LOOKS LIKE A PIPE

FOUCAULT AND THE CALIFORNIA ACHIEVEMENT TEST   

Murray Ross University of British Columbia

In I’m not Lying, This is Not a Pipe James Palermo ingeniously reworks a familiar theme, namely that culturally biased standardized tests threaten to limit the educational opportunities of minority children. Palermo argues that Foucault’s meditation on   Magritte’s   This is Not a Pipe reveals “the ambiguous, contradictory and non-representational relationship between words and things.” Once this relationship is understood teachers can begin to develop the critical aesthetic consciousness necessary to unmask the illegitimate practices of normalization, subjectification and exclusion associated with the CAT and tests like it.

The most intriguing and original elements of Palermo’s argument center on the contradictory “message” of This is Not a Pipe. Given the conventions of representational art, images are meant to represent, while language is meant to fix the reference of the image. That Magritte breaks with these conventions is seen by Palermo to be of great significance. He likens the painting’s contradictory message to a lie “which repeat[s] within us the agonizing experience felt when we think the friend conversing with us is lying.” I do not think it is unfair to suggest Palermo is exaggerating here. There are many speech acts besides lies that convey mixed messages. Puns, for example, or jokes are frequently based on an inversion or violation of the conventions and background assumptions that make our various language games intelligible to us. The people I asked take the painting to be a quirky and whimsical work; most felt the contradiction between inscription and image to be too transparent to qualify as a lie, or even an attempt to lie. I think Palermo is too quick to speak of lies, both with respect to the painting and the CAT. More of this later.

The heart of Palermo’s discussion of This is Not a Pipe centers on the distinction between resemblance and similitude. Unfortunately, Palermo is not very clear on just what the distinction is between these two, and the excerpts from Foucault’s discussion are too brief to clarify sufficiently what special sense is being attached to these terms. I am not sure, for example, what sort of hierarchy is being alluded to, or how representation rules over resemblance. I suspect that the meaning Foucault gives to resemblance presupposes a particular fixed ontology where words somehow correspond to things in the world, while similitude refers to relations between words or statements, and allows for a variety of interpretations. According to a fixed correspondence relation between words and things, there are right and wrong ways of speaking, in particular, ways of speaking that fail to match up with reality in the proper way. In a relation of similitude, statements are true not by virtue of some correspondence with things in the world, but relative to a language. I might well be wrong about this for I found the discussion obscure. The upshot appears to be that the CAT assumes a fixed correspondence between words and things which inevitably produces among test-takers an arbitrarily designated category of losers, individuals who are judged sub-normal or abnormal in virtue of the different language they use. Presumably it is the arbitrary nature of this category that makes the designation a lie. Palermo draws several conclusions from Foucault’s discussion:

1. Plastic imagery and discourse can be shown as incommensurable sign systems.
2. Plastic imagery need not represent; it can instead be an expression of similitude.

These are interesting and provocative claims, but their meaning too is less than perfectly clear. The few sketchy comments on similitude and resemblance do little to convince me that the concept of incommensurability is appropriate in this context. For one thing, it is not clear whether Palermo is saying imagery and language are incommensurable sign systems or merely that they can be. Since incommensurability is usually taken to be an all or nothing affair I find these conclusions puzzling. It is easy to accept the second claim that artistic images need not have a narrowly fixed reference, but we do not need Foucault to tell us this. If the first claim amounts to anything more than “the meaning of paintings is harder to pin down than the meaning of words,” I would have liked a bit more argument. If the plastic images and language of the CAT are literally incommensurable sign systems, then it must be that everyone will do poorly on the CAT, including the designers of it, and that is clearly not what Palermo is saying. If Palermo’s remarks concerning incommensurability amount to nothing more than the claim that African-American children will have difficulty interpreting the test, then I do not see how Foucault’s distinction between similitude and resemblance illuminates the problem of test bias more vividly than the standard sociological critique.

A word or two about disciplinary power seems in order.

In Discipline and Punish Foucault remarks that the workshop, the school, the army were subthe workshop, the school, the army were subject to a whole micropenality of time (latenesses, absences, interruptions of tasks), of activity (inattention, negligence, lack of zeal), of behavior (impoliteness, disobedience), of speech (idle chatter, insolence).

The issue, of course, is whether such standards of conduct, activity, and speech are essentially implicated in practices of domination and repression. Must norms of academic competence (or readiness) inevitably be part of a normalizing practice which by its nature mistreats schoolchildren or in some way brings them harm? It is a one-sided analysis, Foucault says, to describe power only in its negative functions of exclusion, repression, and censorship, for power also produces abilities. Disciplinary power increases the force or productive capacity of the body at the same time it diminishes the individual’s power to resist. The strategies of hierarchical observation, normalizing judgment and examination yielded in schools a remarkable increase in achievement, most often by restricting the student’s power to resist. Is this evil? Foucault himself admits the answer will vary case by case.Despite Foucault’s disavowals in interviews, Foucault’s genealogies are often seen as protests against the disciplinary effects of hierarchical judgment or examination, and nothing more. Freedom is a good in itself against which the discipline of schools, asylums, and leprosariums is an offense. Foucault makes plain, however, that he does not believe all educational norms must be, in some way, arbitrary, or based on false premises, or compromised by the will to power. Nonetheless, it is apparent that some educationists ignore in Foucault’s writing this tension between the potentially oppressive character of normalizing discourse and the unproblematic nature of our trying to make accurate judgments about children’s intellectual growth. Foucault once said in an interview:

Let us also take something that has been the object of criticism, often justified: the pedagogical institution. I don’t see where evil is in the practice of someone who, in a given game of truth, knowing more than another, tells him what he must do, teaches him, transmits knowledge to him, communicates skills to him. The problem is rather to know how you are to avoid in these practices — where power cannot not play and where it is not evil in itself — the effects of domination which will make a child subject to the arbitrary and useless authority of a teacher

Schools are places, says Foucault, “where power cannot not play and where it is not evil in itself.” Our task is to figure out how to avoid subjecting children to arbitrary and useless authorities, not all authorities.

Is the CAT implicated in a lie, part of a normalizing discourse that fabricates, rather than merely identifies, an inability to switch codes, as Palermo insists? Palermo accepts that schools should teach Standard English to African American children because these children need to be able to translate from the dominant code to their own. One need not think Standard English is superior to recognize the disadvantage that falls to those children unfamiliar with it. Thus, an inability to switch codes is a real inability, not an imagined one. I am, therefore, at a loss to understand how Palermo can say “the language of discursive practices creates the reality it describes.”

It has been observed that there is an American Foucault and a French Foucault. Rorty says the American version “can be read, with only a little strain, as an up-to-date version of John Dewey…with most of the Nietzscheanism drained away.” The American Foucault is equally concerned with injustice, but has not hobbled his critique with the same ambiguities and paradoxes that beset the Nietzschean Foucault. The American Foucault is more coherent, though less dramatic. I think Palermo’s paper is written in the spirit of the French Foucault, and is as a result more dramatic than coherent. The story he tells has been told before, but less dramatically, in the sociological critique. It is an important story to tell again, and some of the Nietzscheanism, at least, is salutary. Philosophers such as Rorty, Taylor and Walzer prefer the American Foucault, but admit the French Foucault is correct enough to be disturbing.

ed.uiuc.edu

... Disciplinary power, on the other hand, is exercised through its invisibility; at the same time it imposes on those whom it subjects a principle of compulsory visibility. In discipline, it is the subjects who have to be seen. Their visibility assures the hold of the power that is exercised over them.
DISCIPLINE AND PUNISH -  The Birth of the Prison


 

La pipe d’en haut est sans coordonnées. L’énormité de ses proportions, rend incertaine sa localisation … : est-elle, cette pipe démesurée, en avant du tableau dessiné, le repoussant loin derrière elle ? Ou bien est-elle en suspens juste au-dessus du chevalet, comme une émanation, une vapeur qui viendrait de se détacher du tableau, – fumée d’une pipe prenant elle-même la forme et la rondeur d’une pipe … ? Ou bien ne pourrait-elle pas supposer, à la limite, qu’elle est en arrière du tableau et du chevalet, plus gigantesque alors qu’elle ne paraît ; elle en serait la profondeur arrachée, la dimension intérieure crevant la toile.
MF - ceci n'est pas une pipe 1973 - fb/mf

 

 

What, do you imagine that I would take so much trouble and so much pleasure in writing, do you think that I would keep so persistently to my task, if I were not preparing - with a rather shaky hand - a labyrinth into which I can venture, in which I can move my discourse, opening up underground passages, forcing it to go far from itself, finding overhangs that reduce and deform its itinerary, in which I can lose myself and appear at last to eyes that I will never have to meet again. I am no doubt not the only one who writes in order to have no face.

Do not ask who I am and do not ask me to remain the same: leave it to our bureaucrats and our police to see that our papers are in order. At least spare us their morality when we write.
...

Discourse is not life

its time is not your time. in it, you will not be reconciled to death. you may have killed God beneath the weight of all that you have said but don't imagine that with all that you are saying you will make a man that will live longer than he.

archaeology of knowledge - 1972

 

N'oubliez pas d'inventer votre vie
courage de la vérité 2009

music is tragedy pathos death.  

It is the whole game the trembling to  the point of suicide.

If music is not that if it does not overtake and pass the limits  

it is nothing.

 

 

Nothing is fundamental.  That is what is so interesting in the analysis of society. That is why nothing irritates me as much as these inquiries -  which are by definition meptaphysical - on the foundations of  power in a society or the self-institution of a society, etc.  These are not fundamental phenomena.  There are only reciprocal relations,  and the perpetual gaps between  intentions in relation to one another.

mf

 

Panopticon

metafora dell’invadenza con cui la società moderna

si impegna a disciplinare e monitorare la vita dei suoi cittadini

mf

 
Death

left its old tragic heaven and became the lyrical core of man  

his invisible truth his visible secret
the birth of the clinic - archaeology of medical perception

 


C'est par statut que le despote est un criminel

alors que c'est par accident que le criminel est un despote
Les Anormaux (Cours au Collège de France 1974-1975

The despot is a criminal by his status whereas the criminal is a despot by accident

Abnormal: Lectures at the Collège de France 1974-1975

 

 

 

personally I've never met any intellectuals.

I've met people who write novels, others who treat the sick.  people who work in economics and others who compose electronic music.   I've met people who teach, people who paint, and people of whom I have never really understood what they do.   But intellectuals ?   Never.
ethics

  

La dimensione del 'noi'

non è qualcosa che ci sia stato assegnato preliminarmente, per natura, ma un obiettivo da problematizzare di continuo per renderne possibile la «futura costruzione». E la biopolitica non è il margine entro cui sono confinate le nostre pratiche politiche, ma il limite che occorre oltrepassare per assumere, nei confronti del potere, un atteggiamento «affermativo» e non solo «difensivo».
stefano catucci - ilmanifesto.it

 

comunicazione-guerriglia
una “polizia discorsiva” che sorveglia individui disillusi e disciplinati...

il controllo del comportamento .. per perpetuare il potere.

...

Il potere, lungi dall’impedire il sapere, lo produce.

Se si è potuto costituire un sapere sul corpo

è stato attraverso un insieme di discipline militari e scolastiche.

È solo a partire da un potere sul corpo che un sapere fisiologico, organico era possibile.
potere-corpo/microfisica del potere   -   www.filosofico.net/foucault.htm

...

The intellectual was rejected and persecuted

at the precise moment when the facts became incontrovertible

when it was forbidden to say that the emperor had no clothes
MF

The strategic adversary is fascism

the fascism in us all -  in our heads and in our everyday behavior

 the fascism that causes us to love power

 to desire the very thing that dominates and exploits us

mf

Forse oggi l’obiettivo principale non è di scoprire che cosa siamo

ma piuttosto di rifiutare quello che siamo

Dobbiamo immaginare e costruire ciò che potremmo diventare

MF

 

manet vu par foucault

Didier Eribon
L’histoire est connue: longtemps, Michel Foucault caressa le projet d’une étude sur Manet. Hélas, l’ouvrage ne vit jamais le jour. Mais le philosophe présenta ses analyses dans plusieurs conférences. Un enregistrement de celle qu’il donna à Tunis en 1971 a survécu et c’est sa transcription qui paraît aujourd’hui, accompagnée des actes d’un colloque qui lui fut récemment consacré.
On sait que Foucault vouait à la peinture un intérêt passionné: son livre de 1966 «les Mots et les Choses» s’ouvre sur un commentaire des «Ménines» de Vélasquez. Ce qui lui valut de recevoir une lettre de
René Magritte. Foucault répondit alors au peintre belge pour le remercier et lui demander des informations sur son tableau qui détourne «le Balcon» de Manet (les personnages y sont remplacés par des cercueils). De cette correspondance naîtra le petit volume de Foucault sur la peinture contemporaine, intitulé, d’après une œuvre dont Magritte lui avait envoyé une reproduction, «Ceci n’est pas une pipe» (Fata Morgana, 1973). Foucault y compare surtout l’œuvre de Magritte à celles de Kandinsky et de Klee.
Mais c’est donc Manet qui, au départ, l’intriguait. Immédia-tement après la parution des «Mots et les Choses», il signa un contrat avec les Editions de Minuit pour un livre qui devait s’intituler «le Noir et la surface. Essai sur Manet». Qu’aurait contenu cet ouvrage? Nous ne le saurons jamais. Tout au plus peut-on essayer de l’imaginer à partir des éléments dont nous disposons. Dans la conférence de Tunis, où, dit-il, il ne va pas parler de «Manet en général» mais d’à peine plus d’une dizaine de toiles, ce n’est pas le précurseur de l’impressionnisme que Foucault va se donner pour tâche d’étudier, mais plutôt celui qui a ouvert la voie à toute la peinture moderne, «à l’intérieur de laquelle, encore actuellement, se développe l’art contemporain».
Il est assez simple, nous dit Foucault, de désigner ce qui, dans la peinture de Manet, a rendu possible l’impressionnisme: «Nouvelles techniques de la couleur, utilisation de couleurs sinon tout à fait pures, du moins relativement pures, utilisation de certaines formes d’éclairage et de luminosité qui n’étaient point connues dans la peinture précédente.» Mais il est beaucoup plus difficile de connaître et de situer les modifications apportées par Manet et qui rendraient possible, «au-delà de l’impressionnisme, en quelque sorte par-dessus l’impressionnisme», la peinture qui allait venir par la suite. Pour les résumer d’une phrase, Foucault souligne que Manet est celui qui, «pour la première fois dans l’art occidental, au moins depuis la Renaissance, au moins depuis le Quattrocento, s’est permis d’utiliser à l’intérieur même de ses tableaux, à l’intérieur même de ce qu’ils représentaient, les propriétés matérielles de l’espace sur lequel il peignait».
Alors que, depuis le xvesiècle, il s’agissait de faire oublier le support sur lequel on peignait, avec Manet il s’agit au contraire de faire «resurgir ces propriétés, ces qualités ou ces limitations matérielles de la toile». Foucault commente alors une série de tableaux pour montrer comment Manet, au lieu de masquer les propriétés spatiales de la toile, les a reproduites et exaltées dans les tableaux eux-mêmes, en insistant sur l’entrecroisement des lignes horizontales et verticales (dans «Bal masqué à l’Opéra» ou «le Port de Bordeaux»), en jouant sur le fait que la toile a un recto et un verso (les personnages qui regardent dans des sens opposés dans «la Serveuse de bocks», vers des spectacles que nous ne voyons pas), ou encore en mettant en évidence que la lumière qui éclaire la toile lui vient de l’extérieur, de là où se trouve le spectateur (dans l’«Olympia»).
Au terme de son analyse, Foucault conclut que si Manet n’a évidemment pas inventé la peinture représentative, puisque tout chez lui est représentatif, il a en revanche inventé le «tableau-objet», la «peinture-objet», et que «c’était sans doute la condition fondamentale pour que finalement, un jour, on se débarrasse de la représentation elle-même et [qu’]on laisse jouer l’espace avec ses propriétés pures et simples, ses propriétés matérielles elles-mêmes.»

nouvelobs.com

 

L'homme est une invention récente dont l'archéologie de notre pensée montre aisément la date récente  .    Et peut-être la fin prochaine  .
les mots et les choses 1966

La Passion Foucault
Michel Foucault fut le plus éminent nietzschéen de notre époque. Mais aujourd'hui, il demeure presque impossible de parler sans passion de l'homme et de son oeuvre. L'impérieuse loyauté de ses disciples rend la démarche difficile, autant que les circonstances qui ont entouré sa mort. Mais la plus profonde cause réside chez Nietszche lui-même. Comment pouvons-nous prétendre juger celui qui professe de vivre "par delà le bien et le mal" ? D'autant que si nous le jugeons selon les critères de la morale traditionnelle, se confirmera le diagnostic nietzschéen de notre "ressentiment" d'esclave. Et, si nous le jugeons selon les critères du Zarathoustra, nous devrons accepter d'être rangés parmi les "derniers hommes".
republique-des-lettres.fr - James Miller

.

Friedrich Nietzsche was the first to release the desire to know from the sovereignty of knowledge (connais- sance) itself: to re-establish the distance and exteriority that Aristotle cancelled, a cancellation that had been maintained by all philosophy.
lectures on the will to know - 1970

 

 

Jamais la psychologie ne pourra dire sur la folie la vérité
puisque c'est la folie qui détient la vérité de la psychologie
maladie mentale et psychologie - 1962
mai la psicologia potrà dire sulla follia la verità
perché è la follia che detiene la verità della psicologia
Psychology can never tell the truth about madness
because it is madness that holds the truth of psychology
 mental illness and psychology

 

 

     la nostra memoria è sempre audiovisiva   

 

 

 
Festival filosofia 'processa' Michel Foucault
uno dei più originali interpreti novecenteschi del rapporto tra sapere e potere.
.. il Teatro Filosofico di Mondotre "porta in tribunale" un filosofo idolatrato negli anni '70 dai movimenti di contestazione sociale e rispettato da molti intellettuali per l'originalità del suo pensiero, padre indiscusso di alcuni degli effetti che la sua critica alle istituzioni ha avuto nella sfera del sociale: la cosiddetta antipsichiatria e la lotta contro gli eccessi della detenzione carceraria. In una riflessione che incrocia psicanalisi, antropologia e filosofia, Foucault identifica il processo di formazione del sapere come uno dei grandi strumenti di controllo delle coscienze nella storia occidentale. Gli interpreti del processo cercheranno dunque di stabilire se Foucault sia stato un vero maestro per la cultura contemporanea oppure un mito sostenuto da una struttura ideologica di fondo. Anche il pubblico verrà coinvolto nella valutazione.

festivalfilosofia.it - 2007
emilianet.it

.

Il filosofo non ha ruolo nella società. Il suo pensiero non può essere collocato in rapporto al movimento attuale del gruppo. Socrate ne è un eccellente esempio: la società ateniese non ha saputo riconoscegli che un ruolo sovversivo, il suo mettere in questione le cose non poteva essere ammesso dall’ordine costituito. In realtà, è dopo un certo numero di anni che si prende coscienza del posto di un filosofo, insomma gli si assegna un ruolo retrospettivamente.
qu’est-ce qu’un philosophe? - connaissance des hommes - 1966

.

 

 

Un front de bataille traverse la société tout entière, continûment et en permanence, et c'est ce front de bataille qui place chacun de nous dans un camp ou dans un autre. Il n'y a pas de sujet neutre.    

On est forcément l'adversaire de quelqu'un.
cours du 21 janvier 1976 - il faut défendre la société

 

 

 

 Forse una giorno non sapremo più

 esattamente che cosa ha potuto essere la follia

 

noam chomsky

for example, derides Foucault's apparent relativism, his failure to morally evaluate political conditions. In this paper, Paul Patton stakes out the opposing position. "Three centuries ago certain fools were astonished because Spinoza wished to see the liberation of man, even though he did not believe in his liberty or even in his particular existence. Today, new fools, or the same ones reincarnated, are astonished because the Foucault who had spoken of the death of man took part in political struggle."

http://youtu.be/mj2VJ7oexKc

youtube.com/watch?v=7TUD4gfvtDY&feature=player_embedded

 

 

 

Need a quick primer on Postmodernism 

and wonder how anyone can read Michel Foucault? 

 You must be mad

 

 

 


paul Michel Foucault est un homme du regard

Il aimait se situer entre l'obscurité et la lumière, entre l'intérieur et l'extérieur, entre la vie et la mort. Son travail tout au long de sa vie, ne cessa de tenter de comprendre la frontière entre le visible et l'invisible pour découvrir l'invisible du visible. Ce n'est pas pour rien qu'il aimait la peinture de Manet. En analysant le tableau Le Balcon il expliquait que les trois personnages regardaient avec intensité quelque chose que ceux qui regardaient ne pouvaient voir. " Nous, nous ne voyons rien ". Comment voir en effet ? Comment disséquer sous les discours les enjeux du pouvoir, comment comprendre le langage derrière le texte ?

Foucault ou l'homme qui nous dessille les yeux.
Foucault ou l'homme qui débrouille les pistes.
Foucault, l'homme qui, dans sa volonté de savoir, ne cesse de changer son regard, de se remettre en question, de nous remettre en question.       A front renversé disait-il souvent.
Foucault le philosophe, Foucault l'engagé. Foucault sans cesse sur la brèche, brèche de son propre savoir jamais définitivement constitué - travailler, disait-il, c'est entreprendre de penser autre chose que ce qu'on pensait avant - brèche de l'actualité politique qui s'est offerte à lui - le rôle d'un intellectuel, expliquait-il, est de secouer les habitudes, les manières de faire et de penser - brèche enfin sans cesse réexplorée du rapport à soi.
France Culture est heureuse de faire découvrir aux jeunes générations l'itinéraire d'un homme qui a su mener à bien son projet: déployer une histoire critique de la pensée.
France Culture est heureuse de faire entendre à celles et à ceux qui l'avaient lu la voix d'un homme qui n'est pas seulement le théoricien de l'enfermement, le révolté politique, le sociologue du pouvoir dans les sociétés modernes, mais aussi et surtout un boxeur épris de liberté, soucieux d'éthique et d'esthétique, qui ne cessait de se transformer par souci constant de la vérité.
France Culture avec Foucault, ce sont deux semaines de plaisir, de bonheur, de sérénité et d'abandon de soi-même.
  Laure Adler

radiofrance.fr   -   81.220.84.140/hommages/foucault

 

Qui définit le moment où j'écris?
'un cours inedit' in magazine littéraire 1984 pag 34

 

 

 

 per sognare non bisogna chiudere gli occhi - bisogna leggere 

 

 

http://youtu.be/qzoOhhh4aJg   -  the lost interview - 1971
https://youtu.be/BBJTeNTZtGU
   -  philosophy - 2015

 

 

in any given culture and at any given moment there is always only one  'episteme'

that defines the conditions of possibility of all knowledge

whether expressed in theory or silently invested in a practice

...

The function proper to knowledge is not seeing or demonstrating

it is interpreting

...

It is comforting, however, and a source of profound relief to think that man is only a recent invention, a figure not yet two centuries old, a new wrinkle in our knowledge, and that he will disappear again as soon as that knowledge has discovered a new form.

the order of things -  an archaeology of the human sciences  - 1966

 

 

BIBLIOGRAFIA

2018

les aveux de la chair - postumo

2011

IL CORAGGIO DELLA VERITA

2008

BISOGNA DIFENDERE LA SOCIETA

IL CORPO LUOGO DI UTOPIA

DISCIPLINE POTERI VERITA

2007

IL SAPERE E LA STORIA

CONVERSAZIONI

VERITA E FORME GIURIDICHE

2006
Utopie ed eterotopie
Follia e psichiatria. Detti e scritti 1957-1984
Psychiatric Power
2005
History of Madness in the Classical Age
L'impazienza della libertà
Della natura umana. Invariante biologico
Discorso e verità nella Grecia antica
Nascita della biopolitica
Sorvegliare e punire. Nascita della prigione
La pittura di Manet
Sicurezza, territorio, popolazione


2004
Essential Works
L'ordine del discorso e altri interventi
Scritti letterari
Il potere psichiatrico
Society Must Be Defended

2003
L'ermeneutica del soggetto
Il sogno

2002
Archaeology of Knowledge
Gli anormali. Corso al Collège de France

2001
Order of Things
Madness and Civilization
Biopolitica e liberalismo
Raymond Roussel
Il discorso, la storia, la verità
Storia della sessualità

1988
History of Sexuality  
Questo non è una pipa

1981
Power/Knowledge

unilibro

 

INTERVISTA 28.11.1971 - PERDUTA E RITROVATA - http://youtu.be/qzoOhhh4aJg 
INTERVIEW CONDUCTED BY THE DUTCH PHILOSOPHER FONS ELDERS IN PREPARATION FOR THE DEBATE BETWEEN NOAM CHOMSKY AND MICHEL FOUCAULT, WHICH WAS BROADCASTED ON DUTCH TELEVISION ON SUNDAY, NOV. 28, 1971. THE WHOLE INTERVIEW WAS ESSENTIALLY LOST FOR DECADES AND WAS PUBLISHED IN THE WINTER OF 2012 FOR THE FIRST TIME.
- I WONDERED, IF AT ALL, WE WESTERNS WERE DECEIVING OURSELVES GREATLY. WE READILY IMAGINE THAT WE ARE A VERY TOLERANT SOCIETY – THAT WE HAVE WELCOMED ALL THE FORMS OF THE PAST, ALL THE CULTURAL FORMS FOREIGN TO US, THAT WE WELCOME ALSO BEHAVIOR, LANGUAGE, AND SEXUAL DEVIATIONS, ETC. I WONDER IF THIS IS AN ILLUSION…IN OTHER WORDS, IN ORDER TO KNOW MADNESS IT HAS TO FIRST BE EXCLUDED. MAYBE WE COULD ALSO SAY THAT IN ORDER TO KNOW OTHER CULTURES…WE MUST NO DOUBT HAVE HAD NOT ONLY TO MARGINALIZE THEM, NOT ONLY LOOK DOWN UPON THEM, BUT ALSO TO EXPLOIT THEM, TO CONQUER THEM AND IN SOME WAYS THROUGH VIOLENCE TO KEEP THEM SILENT -

eugene wolters - critical-theory.com - 2014 - fonselders.eu - freedom and knowledge
DANS NOS DÉMOCRATIES OÙ LES DÉPUTÉS, MINISTRES, PRÉSIDENTS DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE, PARLENT AU NOM DE LA COLLECTIVITÉ, DE L’ETAT ET DE LA SOCIÉTÉ, LA VOLONTÉ GÉNÉRALE, C’EST TOUT DE MÊME QUELQUE CHOSE QUE L’ON SENT RAREMENT.

interview de 1979 - fb/mf

 

 

 

 

non sono né un filosofo né uno scrittore

Non compongo un'opera

faccio ricerche che sono ad un tempo

ricerche storiche e ricerche politiche


 

 

gli archivi della Bastiglia ...

questo luogo calmo e silenzioso era uno dei rifugi preferiti di Michel Foucault

.
.. di me non so niente ..   non so neppure la data della mia morte ..

je ne sais rien de moi .. je ne sais même pas la date de ma mort - mf

utenti.multimania.it

 

futuristi italiani e internazionali

www.dinamopress.it/news/linedito-di-foucault  - Les aveux de la chair - postumo

http://web.mclink.it/MC4200/picturage/futurismo/futurismo.htm

http://utenti.romascuola.net/bramarte/futurismo

http://futurismo.freeservers.com

http://cronologia.leonardo.it/storia/a1909c.htm

www.mart.trento.it     CISF

 

 

 

majakovskij - palazzeschi

 

rené magritte

 

 

 www.magritte.be   -   www.michel-foucault.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

links

www.filosofico.net/foucault.htm  - https://youtu.be/BBJTeNTZtGU
www.infoamerica.org/teoria/foucault1.htm
http://philophil.com/biographie/foucault.htm
www.theory.org.uk/ctr-fouc.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rene_Magritte

 

 

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